Veterinary homeopathy and the naivety of reductionists

by Charles on February 1, 2018

For anyone who can’t be bothered to read all of this post, this is not a defence of homeopathy’s claims of efficacy. Just saying.

The Council of the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons (the RCVS is the body charged by statute with regulation of the UK veterinary profession) recently issued a position statement on ‘complementary and alternative therapies, including homeopathy’. It was an outright attack on non-conventional treatment modalities. The whole text of the statement is here

Homeopathy bore the brunt of the attack.

Here is the core of the statement:

‘…we expect that treatments offered by veterinary surgeons are underpinned by a recognised evidence base or sound scientific principles. Veterinary surgeons should not make unproven claims about any treatments, including prophylactic treatments.
Homeopathy exists without a recognised body of evidence for its use. Furthermore, it is not based on sound scientific principles. In order to protect animal welfare, we regard such treatments as being complementary rather than alternative to treatments for which there is a recognised evidence base or which are based in sound scientific principles.’

I hold no brief for homeopathy (though I am interested in veterinary acupuncture), but this is a statement of, at best, very remarkable naivety. It is, really, a religious naivety, of the sort you see amongst Young Earth Creationists.

The statement represents a touching belief in the integrity and infallibility of scientific publishing, and hence of evidence-based medicine. Has the Council never read about the unrepeatability of many of the headline studies?

Nature (for instance) reported in 2012 that the results of only 6 out of 53 papers deemed ‘landmark’ studies in haematology and oncology could be reproduced. That’s 11%. The authors of the Nature paper commented:

‘Some non-reproducible preclinical papers had spawned an entire field, with hundreds of secondary publications that expanded on elements of the original observation, but did not actually seek to confirm or falsify its fundamental basis.’

A Bayer Healthcare team in 2011 reported that only about 25% of published preclinical studies could be validated to the point at which projects based on the reported findings could continue.

Perhaps the most salutary findings come from the results of a 2016 survey of 1576 researchers carried out by Nature. More than 70% of respondents had tried and failed to reproduce another scientist’s experiments, and more than 50% had failed to reproduce their own. These results were very similar to those obtained in a survey of nearly 900 members of the American Society for Cell Biology.

Until very recently there has not been much enthusiasm for addressing the issue of non-reproducibility. It’s not hard to understand why. ‘Sorting discoveries from false leads’, commented Nature (2016), ‘can be discomfiting. Although the vast majority of researchers in our survey had failed to reproduce an experiment, less than 20% of respondents said that they had ever been contacted by another researcher unable to reproduce their work…. That may be because such conversations are difficult. If experimenters reach out to the original researchers for help, they risk appearing incompetent or accusatory, or revealing too much about their own projects.

A minority of respondents reported ever having tried to publish a replication study. When work does not reproduce, researchers often assume there is a perfectly valid (and probably boring) reason. What’s more, incentives to publish positive replications are low and journals can be reluctant to publish negative findings. In fact, several respondents who had published a failed replication said that editors and reviewers demanded that they play down comparisons with the original study.’

What’s my evidence for my assertion that scientists are trusting believers, whose belief in the integrity of their paradigm is unshakeable? Well, here’s some. In the 2016 Nature survey 52% of the respondents agreed that there is a ‘significant’ crisis of reproducibility. Fine. But fewer than 31% thought that failure to reproduce published results meant that the result was probably wrong, and most respondents said that they still trusted the published literature.

That is pure cognitive dissonance of an essentially religious kind. It is unskeptical and unscientific.

Yet this is the belief that lay behind the RCVS’s position statement.

One would have hoped, too, for a rather more worldly-wise view from the RCVS on the vested interests of drug companies. Ben Goldacre, swashbucklingly but reasonably, summarises:

‘Drugs are tested by the people who manufacture them, in poorly designed trials, on hopelessly small numbers of weird, unrepresentative patients, and analysed using techniques which are flawed by design, in such a way that they exaggerate the benefits of treatments. Unsurprisingly, these trials tend to produce results that favour the manufacturer. When trials throw up results that companies don’t like, they are perfectly entitled to hide them from doctors and patients, so we only ever see a distorted picture of any drug’s true effects. Regulators see most of the trial data, but only from early on in a drug’s life, and even then they don’t give this data to doctors or patients, or even to other parts of government. This distorted evidence is then communicated and applied in a distorted fashion. In their forty years of practice after leaving medical school, doctors hear about what works through ad hoc oral traditions, from sales reps, colleagues or journals. But those colleagues can be in the pay of drug companies – often undisclosed – and the journals are too. And so are the patient groups. And finally, academic papers, which everyone thinks of as objective, are often covertly planned and written by people who work directly for the companies, without disclosure.’1

What all this comes to is that if one should only prescribe drugs with an absolutely unarguable record of efficacy and safety (I’ll come to safety in a moment), almost none of the drugs in the conventional pharmacopeia could be prescribed. The conventional clinicians would be hoist with their own petard.

Perhaps they are to some extent aware of the power of this objection. Perhaps that is the reason for their curious formulation: ‘…we expect that treatments offered by veterinary surgeons are underpinned by a recognised evidence base or sound scientific principles.’ (Emphasis added).

The ‘or’ appears to recognize that there may be some properly prescribable treatments that are not ‘underpinned by a recognized evidence base…’ They are properly prescribable because they are ‘underpinned….by sound scientific principles’. This can be fairly translated as: ‘It might not be possible to prove that X works, but because we can think of a way that it might, it’s OK to use it.’

There are many things that might be said about this. One will do for now.

It is that, again, this is a statement of belief: not, this time, in the integrity of the system (reproducibility, peer review etc) that calls itself ‘evidence-based medicine’, but in the presumption that to understand a mechanism of action at a microscopic level is to predict reliably a macroscopic outcome. Why? The explanation is rather quaintly 18th century: animals and humans are machines, and therefore to understand mechanisms is to understand the whole creature. The more minute the locus of inspection, the greater the explanatory power that results from the inspection, and the more minute the locus of clinical intervention, the better.

It often starts perfectly reasonably: ‘We can see that drug X could interfere with biochemical pathway Y’, says the apologist, ‘and if it does, there would be less of undesirable product Z in the kidneys.’ But then comes the step of pure faith that we see in the RCVS statement: if something might work at a fundamental level, it does – notwithstanding the absence of any clinical evidence. The mechanism is everything: more important, even, than the clinically unaffected or adversely affected patient (though, to be fair, the RCVS do say that animal welfare is their priority). Philosophically, though, it’s abstraction gone mad: adherence to the model is more important than the patient whom the model purportedly serves. This is a very literal form of reductionism: animals and humans should be understood as a conglomeration of systems: organs, cells, biochemical pathways, and genes, and treatment should be directed at these tiny systems, rather than at the whole humans or non-human animals. It’s not surprising. Few western scientists study – except momentarily – whole live animals or whole live humans, and medical and scientific preferment comes from knowing a lot about a tiny area.

This is a way of looking at humans and non-human animals, but it is not the only way. Most non-western medicine looks at whole creatures – as the reductionists do in real life. When they get home from the clinic or the lab to their families, they are far more interested in their whole children than in their children’s livers or their bile metabolism.

There is, then, a rather offensive colonialism about the reductionist assumptions of the west, and a striking inconsistency between the 9 to 5 and the 5 to 9 behaviour of the reductionist believers. One might also observe that, to say the least, the explanatory power of reductionism seems to be limited. You needn’t posit the reality of telepathy or ghosts to say that: you just need to look, as we have, at the failure of reproducibility – the very failure that forced the RCVS to put in its rather embarrassing ‘or’ caveat.

Having been critical of the way that orthodox veterinarians approach the question of clinical evidence, it’s worth looking briefly at whether there is really such a gulf between the evidence for orthodox veterinary medicine and homeopathy.

This doesn’t entail a trawl through the literature on homeopathy. (I’m not qualified to do that, and I haven’t tried.) It’s a matter of very basic observations. To be clear: It seems improbable that homeopathy ‘works’ – in the sense of being more efficacious than a placebo. But perhaps it does. At least sometimes. The history of science is cluttered with the discovery of exhilarating improbabilities, and it is not at all improbable that there are more things in heaven and earth than are dreamt of by the directors of Glaxo or Pfizer. The possibility of homeopathy’s efficacy should be investigated rigorously and with an open mind. If any efficacy is attributable to a particularly potent placebo effect, that seems to me to be a reason for encouraging, not discouraging, its use.The placebo effect forms a significant part of the efficacy of most medicines.

All that can be said about most orthodox medicines is that they work unless they don’t. The same can be said about homeopathic medicines. Orthodox clinicians will protest: ‘But we use these medicines every day: we see that they work’. Homeopathic clinicians, pet owners and farmers (a usually very skeptical crowd, with the bottom line clearly in view) say, apparently, exactly the same thing. It seems patronizing to say that they are all deluded.

A much repeated objection to homeopathic medicine is that (however poor the evidence base for orthodox medicine) there are no robust clinical trials vindicating homeopathic medicine. Whether or not that assertion is true, I simply don’t know. But I have heard repeatedly, anecdotally, that it is tremendously hard to get a study affirming homeopathy published in a mainstream journal. It wouldn’t surprise me. I’d imagine the conversations go like this:

‘Here is a paper showing that homeopathy works.’
‘But homeopathy doesn’t work. It can’t.’
‘But this shows that it does’.
‘There is no way that it can. The paper is rejected.’

The response of the journal is of course profoundly unscientific. It’s that fundamentalism again. It’s scientism. So the paper gets published in a homeopathy journal, which needn’t be cited because it’s a homeopathy journal. Simple as that. It’s a shame.

A word about safety. No one has ever contended that homeopathy causes active harm. No one can dispute that almost all orthodox medications have a long list of recorded adverse reactions. No one should dispute, either, that for a drug to be tried (as appears to be endorsed by the RCVS) on the basis that its mechanism appears therapeutically promising, is to expose a patient to all sorts of potential unforeseen adverse consequences.

It may therefore have been more logical for the RCVS, which justified its statement against complementary medicines by reference to animal welfare, to have spent its time ensuring that owners are properly warned about the manifest and manifold risks (many of which are in that scientific literature) attendant on the use of conventional therapies.


1. Bad Pharma (201), Fourth Estate, p. xi

{ 17 comments… read them below or add one }

Malene Jorgensen February 4, 2018 at 1:39 pm

Hi Charles,

Thank you very much for writing this piece.

I am a veterinary surgeon, a MRCVS, have studied homeopathy since 1996 and am a member of the BAHVS along with about 60 other colleagues. You may or may not be aware of our campaign, which started just after the publication of said statement, and the uproar it has caused in the general public. It is a campaign for our freedom of choice to prescribe any treatment, we see fit in each case to the animals under entrusted in our care,
As a non-homeopathic and obviously openminded colleague with an interest for true science and curiosity of the unknown, I appreciate very much that you describe this subject in the way you do without bias and predjudice. Would it be possible for us to make contact with you for a more in-debth talk about future publications on the subject?

You can contact me on for further information.

Thank you very much again and hope to hear from you soon.

Best wishes

Malene Jorgensen
Veterinary Surgeon

Brendan Clarke February 4, 2018 at 2:32 pm

Hi, Thank you for a true open minded comment on the RCVS position statement on complementary and alternative medicine. After years of evidence being provided at various levels of EBM scales there are some things which as a vet who uses several complementary and alternative treatments I find profoundly frustrating. 1) the evidence based medicine theory for that is what it is, is now questioned, even in pharmaceutical medicine circles. I have read three papers published in mainstream medical journals, including one co authored by Trisha Greenhalgh (original proponent of EBM) pointing out the weakness of the theory. They propose that it is being manipulated by invested parties, it does not take account of adaptation to the larger populations of individual patients (science experiments have to take out all possible natural variance to produce a valid reproducible result) and the vast majority of research appears to only provide quantitative studies which does not look at the qualitative affects of the study. 2) It is hard to fund studies in treatments which have no financial reward for the sponsor (i.e. no patent) even in for example effects of exercise on reduction of disease. 3) The extraordinary move to discount all submitted evidence on a basis of implausibility (they can’t understand it) is surely one of the most un scientific moves by an organisation trying to push the science of a profession.
My views to one side , the British veterinary association (BVA) is proposing to look at the statement by the RCVS lead by a member who is behind the RCVS statement who is also on the BVA policy group to advise its members on not supporting and actively stopping the use of complementary medicine by vets for animals in April 2018. Could I ask if, at the very least I submit your blog for the council to review or if possible for you to submit it to the BVA yourself both to the policy group and council? This means that such a statement may have more of an impact on policy decisions and changing the RCVS position rather than being just another online statement seen by the agreeable public.
Thank you

S. F. Chapman DVM, MRCVS, VetMFHom February 4, 2018 at 6:01 pm

Thank you, Dr. Foster, for a well reasoned, dispassionate article.

Meg February 5, 2018 at 10:39 pm

Way to go prof !

Dave February 6, 2018 at 1:13 pm

“The possibility of homeopathy’s efficacy should be investigated rigorously and with an open mind.”

It has been, for over 200 years. Pretending it somehow needs ‘more work’ is simply flogging a dead horse.

“But I have heard repeatedly, anecdotally, that it is tremendously hard to get a study affirming homeopathy published in a mainstream journal.”

This never used to be the case, there are plenty in studies in journals going back 20 or 30 years. However as efficacy was rarely shown (and when it was, the studies had numerous flaws) the appetite for publishing negative effect studies has waned. And what is left? Homeopathy journals which are of such low quality precisely BECAUSE the studies they publish are junk.

The Placebo Effect is very weak, at best. And to suggest an animal is aware it is being medically treated so can benefit from any Placebo Effect is preposterous in the extreme!

Alan Henness February 7, 2018 at 1:30 pm

You talk about many criticisms of scientific research: do the same criticisms also apply to research into homeopathy?

Charles February 7, 2018 at 4:18 pm

Alan: of course they do.

Charles February 7, 2018 at 4:27 pm

Dave: thank you.
It would be helpful if you could cite the studies that you criticise so that those better qualified than I am to assess the experimental design and execution can comment.
Re your observation: ‘The Placebo Effect is very weak, at best. And to suggest an animal is aware it is being medically treated so can benefit from any Placebo Effect is preposterous in the extreme!’: (a) I know of no mainstream, allopathic commentators who would agree with your comment that the placebo effect is weak. (b) To dismiss as ‘preposterous in the extreme’ the notion that the placebo effect might operate in animals is a beautiful example of exactly the fundamentalist dogmatism that I criticised in the post. Thank you. I have no idea whether or not it works. It should be rigorously evaluated. I would expect any placebo effect on animals to operate through a placebo effect on the owner – but who knows?
I note that you don’t address the main post of my post – namely that a large proportion of the received pharmaceutical wisdom of allopathic medicine rests on a very shaky evidential base.

Alan Henness February 8, 2018 at 2:43 am

So, where does that leave us?

Alan Henness February 9, 2018 at 8:39 pm

So, where does that leave us, do you think?

Charles February 12, 2018 at 8:49 pm

Alan: it leaves us, as I said, with an urgent need for properly designed, rigorously performed, wholly independent studies of both allopathic and homeopathic medicine – with all the results of all studies published.

Alan Henness February 12, 2018 at 9:55 pm

Charles said:

Alan: it leaves us, as I said, with an urgent need for properly designed, rigorously performed, wholly independent studies of both allopathic and homeopathic medicine – with all the results of all studies published.

Who should do that research and what should happen meantime?

Charles February 12, 2018 at 11:58 pm

Re ‘Who should do that research?’ No idea. Not my area.
Re ‘what should happen [in the] mean time?’ (a) Immediate publication of ALL results from preclinical and clinical trials of all products used in both allopathic and homeopathic medicine and veterinary medicine. (b) Independent assessment of whether, in the light of all the evidence, there is a sufficient evidence base to justify the claims of efficacy made. (c) In the mean time, maintain the status quo, which would include permitting, contra the RCVS statement, stand alone homeopathic treatments. (d) When the results of (b) are in, regulation along the lines of the existing regimes, but with meaningful information.

Alan Henness February 14, 2018 at 1:50 am

Well, that’s what the AllTrials campaign is doing and although there’s a lot to do, it’s gathering momentum. As far as I know, no homeopathy manufacturer has signed up to be open about their research data.

In terms of paying for all of that, homeopaths and homeopathy product manufacturers should presumably be willing to pay for the testing of their products. Can’t see that happening though.

But why should homeopaths be allowed to practice meantime? The best evidence seems to say homeopathy has no specific effects over placebo.

Charles February 17, 2018 at 12:02 pm

Yes, AllTrials is making some progress. Don’t know whether manufacturers of homeopathic products have signed up to that, but of course they should. And of course they should pay for the relevant trials. As to whether homeopaths should be allowed to practise in the meantime: see my previous response. We need a level playing field. If homeopathic medicine should be banned on the basis of inadequate vindication in proper trials, so should much allopathic medicine. With the caveat that since much allopathic medicine has the capacity to do harm (as homeopathic medicine apparently does not) the case for banning many allopathic medicines in the meantime is arguably stronger.

Dietrich G von Schweinitz March 18, 2018 at 11:53 pm

Thank you, Charles, for your observations on this misguided and uninformed judgment by the RCVS. One would hope that their in house solicitor would help them avoid making such a poor formal statement. The points you make on the poor level of evidence for any veterinary procedure or drug administration combined with the welfare issues in conventional practice is exactly why the RCVS is out of order in this decision. A sobering paper to consider: Why Most Published Research Findings Are False, John P. A. Ioannidis, PLoS Medicine | Open access, freely available online August 2005. Check out the author’s credentials – he can be taken very seriously (as can C Foster)!
What is additionally very odd about this is: “RCVS Council overwhelmingly rejects
position statement on CAM therapies” from Veterinary Record | June 24, 2017.
Council member Lynne Hill said the RCVS expects veterinary surgeons to practice evidence-based medicine, but ‘there are a lot of things done in veterinary
medicine that don’t have a lot of evidence base behind them’. However, she believed that requiring vets to practice evidence based medicine would halt innovation. She suggested developing a position statement about how the profession delivers veterinary medicine generally, rather than something specifically on CAMs, which ‘muddies the waters’.
How did the revised Statement satisfy the concern raised within the RCVS own council?

Charles March 19, 2018 at 8:17 am

Very many thanks for this, Dietrich. It would be very interesting to know what happened in RCVS Council to to Lynne Hill’s concerns. And, yes, a storming paper by Ioannidis.

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